A. Sleep Medicine

Latest Publications

A new perspective on sleepinesspdficon_small1
Johns MW
Sleep and Biological rhythms, 2010; 8: 170-179

What is excessive daytime sleepiness?pdficon_small1
Johns MW
In: Sleep Deprivation: Causes, Effects and Treatment. Editors; P. Fulke and S. Vaughan. Nova Science, New York, 2009, pp. 59-94.

The effects of blinks and saccadic eye movements on visual reaction timespdficon_small1
Johns M, Crowley K, Chapman R, Tucker A, and Hocking C
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 2009; 71: 783-788.

Development of a Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (JESS) based on item response theory
Takegami M, Suzukamo Y, Wakita T, Noguchi H, Chin K, Kadotani H, Inoue Y, Oka Y, Nakamura T, Green J, Johns MW, and Fukuhara S
Sleep medicine, 2009; 10 (5):556-565.

Sleep Diagnostics: Managing the risks of drowsy driving
Johns M and Prendergast J
Australian Mine Safety Journal, 2009; 2 (4): 56-59.

Portuguese-language version of the Epworth sleepiness scale: validation for use in Brazil
Bertolazi AN, Faggondes SC, Hoff LS, Pedro VD, Barreto SSM and Johns MW
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 2009; 35: 106-113.

The test-retest reliability of an ocular measure of drowsinesspdficon_small1
Johns MW, Crowley KE, Chapman RJ, Tucker AJ, and Hocking CA
Sleep, 2008; 31: A118

An ocular measure of drowsiness and the EEG: changes with sleep deprivationpdficon_small1
Crowley KE, Johns MW, Chapman RJ, Tucker AJ, and Patterson J Sleep, 2008; 31:A119

A.1 Optalert & the Johns Test of Vigilance (JTV)

(see also www.optalert.com)

The effects of blinks and saccadic eye movements on visual reaction timespdficon_small1
Johns M, Crowley K, Chapman R, Tucker A, and Hocking C
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 2009; 71: 783-788.

The test-retest reliability of an ocular measure of drowsinesspdficon_small1
Johns MW, Crowley KE, Chapman RJ, Tucker AJ, and Hocking CA
Sleep, 2008; 31: A118

An ocular measure of drowsiness and the EEG: changes with sleep deprivationpdficon_small1
Crowley KE, Johns MW, Chapman RJ, Tucker AJ, and Patterson J Sleep, 2008; 31:A119

Effects of caffeine on alertness as measured by infrared reflectance oculography pdficon_small1
Michael, N., Johns, M., Owen, C., & Patterson, J.
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2008; 200: 255-260.

A new method for assessing the risks of drowsiness while driving pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W., Chapman, R., Crowley, K., & Tucker, A.
Somnologie, 2008; 12: 66-74.

The test-retest reliability of an ocular measure of drowsiness pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W., Crowley, K. E., Chapman, R. J., Tucker, A. J., & Hocking, C. A.
Sleep, 2008; 31: A118.

An Ocular Measure of Drowsiness and the EEG: Changes with Sleep Deprivation pdficon_small1
Crowley, K., johns, M. W., Chapman, R. J., Tucker, A. J., & Patterson, J.
Sleep, 2008; 31: A119.

Monitoring eye and eyelid movements by infrared reflectance oculography to measure drowsiness in drivers pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W., Tucker, A., Chapman, R., Crowley, K., & Michael, N. J.
Somnologie, 2007; 11: 234-242.

A new scale of drowsiness based on multiple characteristics of blinks: The Johns Drowsiness Scale
Johns, M. W., Tucker, A. J., Chapman, R., Michael, N. J., & Beale, C. A.
Sleep, 2006; 29: A365.

In the drowsy state, errors of omission in a visual reaction-time test occur with eyes open or closed pdficon_small1
Chapman, R., Johns, M. W., & Crowley, K.
Sleep, 2006; 29: A364.

Evaluation of two eyelid closure monitors for drowsiness detection
Howard, M., Clarke, C., Gullo, M., Johns, M. W., Swan, P., Pierce, R., & Kennedy, G.
Sleep & Biological  Rhythms, 2006; 4: A13.

The duration of eyelid movements during blinks: changes with drowsiness pdficon_small1
Tucker, A., & Johns, M. W.
Sleep, 2005; 28: A122.

The amplitude-velocity ratio of blinks: changes with drowsiness
Johns, M. W., & Tucker, A.
Sleep, 2005; 28: A122.

The development of Optalert
Johns, M. W.
2004. (unpublished report).

The amplitude velocity ratio of blinks:  A new method for monitoring drowsiness pdficon_small1
M.W.Johns
17th Annual Conference, Associated Professional Sleep Societies (APSS), Chicago, June 2003.
Abstract in Sleep, 2003,26; (Suppl):A51-52

A new method for monitoring drowsiness based on the velocity and amptitude of blinks pdficon_small1
Murray Johns
5th International Conference on Fatigue and Transportation, Fremantle, Western Australia, 9-14 March, 2003

The amplitude-velocity ratio of blinks: changes with drowsiness Johns, M. W. pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W.
Sleep, 2003a; 26: A51.

Eyelid closure, visual suppression and hypovigilance in the drowsy state: lapses in performance with eyes open or closed pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W.
Sleep, 2003b; 26: A52.

A.2 Drowsy Driving

Sleep Diagnostics: Managing the risks of drowsy driving
Johns M and Prendergast J
Australian Mine Safety Journal, 2009; 2 (4): 56-59.

A new method for assessing the risks of drowsiness while driving
Johns, M. W., Chapman, R., Crowley, K., & Tucker, A.
Somnologie, 2008; 12: 66-74.

Monitoring eye and eyelid movements by infrared reflectance oculography to measure drowsiness in drivers
Johns, M. W., Tucker, A., Chapman, R., Crowley, K., & Michael, N. J.
Somnologie, 2007; 11: 234-242.

Drowsy driving and the law pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W.
A submission to the Law Reform Commission of Tasmania, 2007.

Monitoring the drowsiness of drivers: A new method based on the velocity of eyelid movements pdficon_small1
Murray Johns, Andrew Tucker & Robert Chapman.
Intelligent Transport Sysytems (ITS) International Conference on Fatigue Management in Transport, San Francisco, Nov 2005

Methods for assessing the drowsiness of drivers
Johns, M. W.
2001. (unpublished report).

Assessing the drowsiness of drivers pdficon_small1
Murray W Johns
Unpublished report commissioned by VicRoads, Melbourne, 2001.

A sleep physiologist’s view of the drowsy driver
Johns, M. W.
Transportation Research, 2000; Part F 3 : 241-249.

Dozing at the wheel, daytime sleepiness and sleep disorders in patients at Epworth Sleep Centre
Johns, M. W., & Martyn, L.
Sleep Research Online, 1999; 2: 382.

A.3 Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)

For those who wish to use the ESS, whether or not they need a license to do so, should consult another website specifically for that (www.EpworthSleepinessScale.com)

Portuguese-language version of the Epworth sleepiness scale: validation for use in Brazil
Bertolazi AN, Faggondes SC, Hoff LS, Pedro VD, Barreto SSM and Johns MW
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 2009; 35: 106-113.

Development of a Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (JESS) based on item response theory pdficon_small1
Takegami M, Suzukamo Y, Wakita T, Noguchi H, Chin K, Kadtani H, Inoue Y, Oka Y, Nakamura T, Green J, Johns M.W. Fukuhara S.
Sleep Medicine 2008;10 (5):556-565.

The somnificity of different activities described in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale pdficon_small
Johns, M. W., & Knutson, K. L.
Sleep, 2006; 29: A30.

Validation of a Chinese version of the Epworth sleepiness scale
Chen, N. H., Johns, M. W., Li, H. Y., Chu, C. C., Liang, S. C., Shu, Y. H., Chuang, M. L., & Wang, P. C.
Qual Life Res, 2002; 11: 817-821.

Sensitivity and specificity of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test and the epworth sleepiness scale: failure of the MSLT as a gold standard pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W.
J Sleep Res, 2000; 9: 5-11.

Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits of Australian workers
Johns, M. W., & Hocking, B.
Sleep, 1997; 20: 844-849.

Sleepiness in different situations measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Johns, M. W.
Sleep, 1994; 17: 703-710.

Measurement of daytime sleepiness by patients and their spouses using the Epworth sleepiness scale pdficon_small1
Murray Johns
6th Annual scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, 1993.

Daytime sleepiness, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Johns, M. W.
Chest, 1993; 103: 30-36.

Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Johns, M. W.
Sleep, 1992; 15: 376-381.

Measuring the daytime sleepiness_of_OSAS: The_Epworth_sleepiness_scale pdficon_small1
Murray W Johns
5th Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Cairne, 3-6 Sep, 1992, p.124.

A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Johns, M. W.
Sleep, 1991; 14: 540-545.

Measuring persistent sleep propensity: the Epworth sleepiness scale pdficon_small1
Murray Johns
4th Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Lorne, Victoria, 1991.

A.4 Sleepiness, Somnificity & Sleepening

A new perspective on sleepinesspdficon_small1
Johns MW
Sleep and Biological rhythms, 2010; 8: 170-179

What is excessive daytime sleepiness?pdficon_small1
Johns MW
In: Sleep Deprivation: Causes, Effects and Treatment. Editors; P. Fulke and S. Vaughan. Nova Science, New York, 2009, pp. 59-94.

The subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness
Johns, M. W.
In S. R. Pandi-Perumal, J. C. Verster, J. M. Monti, M. Lader & S. Z. Langer (Eds.), Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Therapeutics , 2008. (pp. 643-657). London: Informa Healthcare.

The somnificity of different activities described in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Johns, M. W., & Knutson, K. L.
Sleep, 2006; 29: A30.

Sleep propensity varies with behaviour and the situation in which it is measured: the concept of somnificity
Johns, M. W.
J Sleep Res, 2002; 11: 61-67.

Rethinking the assessment of sleepiness
Johns, M. W.
Sleep Med Rev, 1998; 2: 3-15.

A.5 Sleep & Endocrinology

Sleep and thyroid function: further studies in healthy young men
Johns, M. W., & Rinsler, M. G.
J Psychosom Res, 1977; 21: 161-166.

Variations in thyroid function and sleep in healthy young men
Johns, M. W., Masteron, J. P., Paddle-Ledinek, J. E., Patel, Y. C., Winikoff, D., & Malinek, M.
Clin Sci Mol Med, 1975; 49: 629-632.

Delta-wave sleep and thyroid function in healthy young men
Johns, M. W., Masterton, J. P., Paddle-Ledinek, J. E., Winikoff, M., & Mallinek, M.
Sleep Research, 1975; 4: 277.

Sleep and urinary excretion of 17-OHCS in healthy men
Johns, M. W., Few, J. D., & Doré, C.
Sleep Research, 1975; 4: 276.

Suppression of the thyrotrophin circadian rhythm by glucocorticoids
Patel, Y. C., Baker, H. W., Burger, H. G., Johns, M. W., & Ledinek, J. E.
J Endocrinol, 1974; 62: 421-422.

Temporal patterns of integrated plasma hormone levels during sleep and wakefulness. II. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol
Alford, F. P., Baker, H. W., Burger, H. G., De Kretser, D. M., Hudson, B., Johns, M. W., Masterton, J. P., Patel, Y. C., & Rennie, G. C.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1973a; 37: 848-854.

Temporal patterns of integrated plasma hormone levels during sleep and wakefulness. I. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone and cortisol
Alford, F. P., Baker, H. W., Burger, H. G., De Kretser, D. M., Hudson, B., Johns, M. W., Masterton, J. P., Patel, Y. C., & Rennie, G. C.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1973b; 37: 841-847.

Relationship of levels of adrenocortical activity and personality to sleep habits
Johns, M. W., Gay, T., Goodyear, M. D., Masteron, J. P., & Bruce, D. W.
Psychophysiology, 1972; 9: 102.

Relationship between sleep habits, adrenocortical activity and personality
Johns, M. W., Gay, T. J., Masterton, J. P., & Bruce, D. W.
Psychosom Med, 1971; 33: 499-508.

Disturbed sleep and corticosteroid output
Gay, T., Johns, M. W., & Masterton, J. P.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 1970; 40: 205.

A.6 Sleep Habits & Sleep Questionnaires

The St. Mary’s Hospital sleep questionnaire: a study of reliability
Ellis, B. W., Johns, M. W., Lancaster, R., Raptopoulos, P., Angelopoulos, N., & Priest, R. G.
Sleep, 1981; 4: 93-97.

Validity of subjective reports of sleep latency in normal subjects
Johns, M. W.
Ergonomics, 1977; 20: 683-690.

Factor analysis of analogue scales measuring subjective feelings before and after sleep
Herbert, M., Johns, M. W., & Doré, C.
Br J Med Psychol, 1976; 49: 373-379.

The sleep habits, personality and academic performance of medical students
Johns, M. W., Dudley, H. A., & Masterton, J. P.
Med Educ, 1976; 10: 158-162.

Factor analysis of subjectively reported sleep habits, and the nature of insomia
Johns, M. W.
Psychol Med, 1975a; 5: 83-88.

Factor analysis of objective and subjective characteristics of a night’s sleep
Johns, M. W.
Psychol Med, 1975b; 5: 413-418.

The sleep habits and lifestyle of cigarette smokers
Johns, M. W.
Med J Aust, 1974; 2: 808-811.

Psychological correlates of sleep habits reported by healthy young adults
Johns, M. W., Bruce, D. W., & Masterton, J. P.
Br J Med Psychol, 1974; 47: 181-187.

Changes with age in the duration of sleep in human adults
Johns, M. W., Goodyear, M. D., & Masteron, J. P.
Psychophysiology, 1972; 9: 97.

Sleep habits of healthy young adults: use of a sleep questionnaire
Johns, M. W., Gay, T. J., Goodyear, M. D., & Masterton, J. P.
Br J Prev Soc Med, 1971; 25: 236-241.

A.7 Sleep of Hospital Patients

Sleep and delirium after open heart surgery
Johns, M. W., Large, A. A., Masterton, J. P., & Dudley, H. A.
Br J Surg, 1974; 61: 377-381.

Sleep habits and symptoms in male medical and surgical patients
Johns, M. W., Egan, P., Gay, T. J., & Masterton, J. P.
Br Med J, 1970; 2: 509-512.

Monitoring sleep of hospital patients by measurement of electrical resistance of skin
Johns, M. W., Cornell, B. A., & Masterton, J. P.
J Appl Physiol, 1969; 27: 898-901.

Electrical assessment of sleep in clinical medicine
Masterton, J. P., Johns, M. W., Mainland, J. F., & Cornell, B. A.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 1968; 38: 182.

A.8 Sleep & Hypnotic drugs

Optimum use of night sedation
Johns, M. W.
Current Therapeutics, 1994; 69-75.

Night sedation
Johns, M. W.
Current Therapeutics, 1987; 125-132.

Self-poisoning with barbiturates in England and Wales during 1959-74
Johns, M. W.
Br Med J, 1977; 1: 1128-1130.

Sleep and hypnotic drugs
Johns, M. W.
Drugs, 1975; 9: 448-478.

Effect of flurazepam on sleep in the laboratory
Johns, M. W., & Masterton, J. P.
Pharmacology, 1974; 11: 358-364.

Use of hypnotic drugs by hospital patients
Johns, M. W., Hepburn, M., & Goodyear, M. D.
Med J Aust, 1971; 2: 1323-1327.

A.9 Sleep Disorders & General Sleep Medicine

The beginnings of sleep medicine at the Alfred Hospital
Johns, M. W.
2006. (Unpublished report).

Distinguishing sleep disorders from seizures: diagnosing bumps in the night
Derry, C. P., Davey, M., Johns, M., Kron, K., Glencross, D., Marini, C., Scheffer, I. E., & Berkovic, S. F.
Arch Neurol, 2006; 63: 705-709.

The clinical assessment of daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Johns, M. W.
In M. Fabiani (Ed.), Surgery for Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
2003. (pp. 283-295). Kugler Publications: The Hague, The Netherlands.

Restless legs  syndrome is a common cause of insomnia in the general population pdficon_small1
Murray Johns
13th Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association,, Melbourne, 2000.

Multiple sleep disorders in patients at a sleep centre pdficon_small1
Murray Johns & Lynda Martyn
11th Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Sydney, NSW, 1998.

Management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
Johns, M. W.
Current Therapeutics, 1997; 38: 37-42.

The_sleep habits, sleep-disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness of industrial workers pdficon_small1
Murray Johns, Bruce Hocking & Vicky Ryan
8th Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Hobart, Tasmania, 1995.

Understanding Insomnia pdficon_small1
Johns, M. W.
Australian Family Physician, 1993; 22: 318-328.

Polysomnography at a sleep disorders unit in Melbourne
Johns, M. W.
Med J Aust, 1991; 155: 303-308.

An improved method for EEG analysis and computer-aided sleep scoring
Johns, M. W., & Burton, D.
Sleep Res, 1990; 19: 368.

A portable light source for bright light treatment
McIntyre, I. M., Johns, M., Norman, T. R., & Armstrong, S. M.
Sleep, 1990; 13: 272-275.

Computerized polysomnography at Epworth pdficon_small1
hospital.
Murray Johns & David Burton
2nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Melbourne, 1989.

Computer detection of sleep related myoclonus pdficon_small1
Murray Johns
2nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Melbourne, 1989.

Computerized polysomnography at Epworth Hospital pdficon_small1
Murray Johns & David Burton
2nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Melbourne, 1989

Jactatio capitis nocturna in a healthy man pdficon_small1
Murray Johns
2nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Australasian Sleep Association, Melbourne, 1989.

A new sleep disorders unit at Epworth Hospital,  Melbourne pdficon_small1
Murray Johns
Inaugural Scientific Meeting, Australian Sleep Research Society (later the Australasian Sleep Association), Sydney, 12th May 1988.

Normal sleep
Johns, M. W.
In R. G. Priest (Ed.), Sleep. An International Monograph 1984. (pp. 12-17). London: Update Books.

Sleep
Johns, M. W.
In O. G. Edholm & J. S. Weiner (Eds.), The Principles and Practice of Human Physiology 1981. (pp. 505 – 527). London: Academic Press.

Sleep at home and in the sleep laboratory: disturbance by recording procedures
Johns, M. W., & Dore, C.
Ergonomics, 1978; 21: 325-330.

A transportable sleep recording system
Ellis, B. W., Randall, N. J., Johns, M. W., & Dudley, H. A.
Biomed Eng, 1976; 11: 246-248, 251.

A warning device which indicates the stoppage of paper in an ink-writing recorder
Johns, M. W., & Reeves, E. S.
Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1976; 41: 414-415.

Heart rate and sleep latency in young men
Johns, M. W., Thornton, C., & Dore, C.
J Psychosom Res, 1976; 20: 549-553.

Preliminary communication: Factor analysis of objective and subjective characteristics of a night’s sleep pdficon_small1
M.W.Johns
Psychological Medicine,1975; 5(4):413-418

Tracking the dominant frequency of the EEG by phase-locked loop demodulation
Johns, M. W., Stear, E. B., & Hanley, J.
Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1974; 37: 414-416.

Management of insomnia
Johns, M. W.
Drugs, 1972; 4: 290-294.

An analogue sleep analyser based on EEG, EOG and skin resistance
Johns, M. W., Cornell, B. A., & Masteron, J. P.
Psychophysiology, 1972; 9: 147.

Methods for assessing human sleep
Johns, M. W.
Arch Intern Med, 1971; 127: 484-492.

Use of skin resistance in monitoring sleep and wakefulness
Johns, M. W., Cornell, B. A., & Masteron, J. P.
(1971). Paper presented at the Digest of 9th International Congress on Biological and Medical Engineering, Melbourne.